Fake news stories attempt to pass off as real false claims that are not supported by any credible evidence.
Some people and companies profit financially from the creation and sharing of fake news stories. So there is a clear profit motive. There’s also a political motive since fake news can also be designed to influence and persuade.
Types of Fake News:
As noted above, fake news is most commonly defined as a fabricated story that imitates the style and appearance of real news articles with an intention to deceive.This deception can be motivated by mischief or calculated disinformation. Fake news can also fall into one of several different types:
Satire that parodies the format typical of mainstream journalism (e.g. theonion.com) is sometimes also described as fake news since some readers may mistakenly read it as real news reporting.
Lists of Known Fake News Sites
The idea here is to help you spot fake news by knowing which sites are purveyors of fake news. Of course, it's not always that simple: keep in mind that fake news can appear on sites that don't appear on any list of known fake news sources, and that some news sources may produce reliable as well as unreliable news stories.
Two widely-circulated lists:
Evaluating News Stories and News Sources
Knowing what to look for and what questions to ask can help when trying to identify fake news. The following "checklists" provide lists of criteria and questions to consider when assessing a news story:
IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) has created the following "How to Spot Fake News" infographic based on FactCheck.org's How to Spot Fake News report:
FactCheck.org also produced the How to Spot Fake News video guide:
Fake News Detectors and Labeling
Facebook and Google are both developing systems and tools designed to help identify fake news. Other organizations have developed browser plug-ins to label fake news stories and sources. Just how successful such tools will be remains to be seen: will they be effective? will people trust them? Here are two examples (more will be added shortly):
Note: watch out for fake fake news checkers. As with news sources and stories, fake news checkers and detectors also need to be critically assessed. Find out who is behind a given fake news checker and how they go about identifying fake news. Check to see what a fake news checker says about a range of news sources, not just one or two as this may not be sufficient to identify any biases or agendas.
The rise in prominence of fake news has also led to a rise in prominence of fact-checking sites. A recently-published book on fact-checking discusses the role of fact-checking in journalism, the practices of fact-checking organizations, and also the limits of fact-checking. Deciding What's True: The Rise of Political Fact-checking in American Journalism by Lucas Graves is available at the library at: PN 4784 .O24 G73 2016.
Below are four commonly recommended sites that aim to verify claims made by news media and politicians and debunk fake news.
More Fact Checking Sites:
As reported by Poynter in February 2017, the Duke Reporters' Lab indicates there are now over 100 fact-checking initiatives in 47 countries.
Another useful resources:
The Chicago Guide to Fact Checking, by Brooke Borel. The University of Chicago Press, 2016.
The short guide offers tips and describes best practices for fact-checking for various sorts of media, including magazines, books and film. Designed as a guide for professional fact-checkers, this book will be of interest to anyone who wishes to learn how to read like a fact-checker. Available at the library at ZA 3075 .B67 2016.
Internet Archive: Wayback Machine
Digital archive of publicly accessible Web pages and information from the Internet. Launched in 2001 and operated by Internet Archive, a non-profit organization located in San Fancisco. Want to compare facts or analysis available on a website today compared to information available on that same site last year, or five years ago? Give the Wayback Machine a try.
A “computational knowledge engine.” Aims “to collect and curate all objective data… and make it possible to compute whatever can be computed about anything.” For example: can be used to find facts about past weather for a given place and date, something that can be helpful when trying to determine the credibility of claims made about a photograph.
Reverse Image Search
Find information about an image to help determine if it matches a story, identify a location or track its use. These tools can also help you determine if an image has been digitally altered.
Compare and Contrast
Personalized search results and social media feeds work in part by collecting and using information about your online activity. The general idea is to give you more of what the companies behind search engines and social media think you like and want. This may seem like a good thing: relevant-seeming search results and social media posts you want to read and like. After a while, though, these systems can create filter bubbles that narrow the diversity of information that is presented to you.
Want to know more about filter bubbles?
The Fake News guide developed by Santa Barbara CIty College's Luria Library has two good sections on this topic (check out the Home and Avoiding Fake News pages).
The Guide also features Eli Pariser's TED Talk, Beware Online "Filter Bubbles" (also available below). Pariser's book, The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding from You, is available at the Mount Allison Library: ZA 4237 .P37 2011.
Mount Allison Library:
The Mount Allison Libraries subscribe to a number of databases providing access to Canadian, U.S., and international newspapers, wire services, magazines, and broadcast transcripts.
These news databases permit you to search multiple news sources at once for news stories from a given date or across a range of dates. In some cases you can search and access "today's" newspapers (e.g. The New York Times, in LexisNexis); in other cases you can search for news stories from decades and even centuries ago (e.g. The Globe and Mail from 1844, ProQuest). News and analysis from alternative and independent news sources can be discovered through the Alternative Press Index.
The Mount Allison University Library's news databases may be accessed from the A-Z List of Databases: News.
Print and Microfilm:
In addition to news databases, the library also receives a small number of newspapers in print and has a larger number of newspapers on microfilm (including the New York Times, London Times, and many regional newspapers). These may be discovered using the Library Catalogue. (A list of newspapers on microfilm is also available at the Research Help Desk).
Guides to Online News Sources:
NB Public Libraries:
Additional news databases, including Eureka.cc, may be accessed via the NB Public Libraries
Eureka.cc indexes and provides access to community papers from across Canada, including the Sackville Tribune-Post, and French-language newspapers such as L’Acadie Nouvelle, L’Actualité, Le Devoir, Le Droit and La Presse.
Note: Eureka.cc also includes non-news sources such as Facebook and Twitter posts on topic such as "banking," "energy," "law," and "pharmaceutical" pulled from what are described as "the social media accounts of authoritative, public, or private organizations, and individuals."
Knowing how to spot fake news is important. So is knowing how to recognize good journalism.
In other words, become familiar with journalism standards and guidelines so that you can recognize a good journalism when you see it, and spot stories masquerading as news that don't live up to these standards.
Below are just a few examples of good journalism standards:
For more detail, see the Society of Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics and the Canadian Association of Journalists' (CAJ) Ethics Guidelines.
No one guide can offer comprehensive lists of tips, strategies and resources. Below are several other library guides to Fake New that feature additional information, tips, and resources:
This is by no means a complete list -- more guides will be added soon.
Suggestions welcome: know of a good one that isn't listed here? Please let us know!
Selected articles about the rise in prominence of fake news:
"A Finder's Guide To Facts" by Steve Inskeep, NPR
"Moral panic over fake news hides the real enemy – the digital giants" by Evgeny Morozov, The Guardian.
"Meet the Professor Who’s Trying to Help You Steer Clear of Clickbait" by Nadia Dreid, Chronicle of Higher Education.
"How Fake News Goes Viral: A Case Study" by Sapna Maheshwari, The New York Times
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