Skip to main content
Banner image link to Mount Allison UniversityMount Allison University Libraries and ArchivesImage Map
Hours | Libraries Home | Music Library | University Archives

French Language & Literature Subject Guide: Citation Guides

Other Helpful Guides

You can find other helpful citation guides on the Citation Guides & Bibliographic Tools page. 

MLA List of Core Elements

MLA citations are made up of the following core elements* (in this order):

  1. Author.
  2. Title of Source. 
  3. Title of Container,
  4. Other Contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication Date,
  9. Location.

Each element is followed by the punctuation as shown in the list above. 

Not every element will be relevant to every item being documented. 

A single item may have more than one container.

For more information and examples, please see Works Cited: A Quick Guide accessible at the MLA Style Center.


* In addition to the core elements, there are optional elements that may also be included in a citation (see pages 50-53 of the Handbook). 

MLA Style: 8th Edition

MLA is the citation style most commonly used in the Arts and Humanities. 

The current edition (8th) of the MLA Handbook introduced many changes and a different approach to documenting sources. 

  • The 8th edition recommends a universal set of guidelines that can be used for any source regardless of format
  • Citations are created by referring to the MLA list of core elements
  • Elements are then assembled in a particular order. 
  • MLA uses the concept of "containers" to describe when a source is part of a larger whole. 

Online Guides with Examples:

  • The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) MLA Formatting and Style Guide includes examples of citations for a variety of formats, including books, articles and online sources. Includes a "Sample Works Cited Page" with examples of print and online sources.  
  • Simon Fraser University Library's MLA Citation Guide covers in-text citation and includes a range of examples (such as citations for A-V materials and lectures and indirect citations). 

Print Copies of the MLA Handbook:

  • Multiple copies of the 8th edition are available at the R.P. Bell Library and Music Library (LB 2369 .G53 2016 REF). 

MLA Style Center:

The MLA Style Center provides a range of guides and resources, including:

7th edition MLA Style Guides

The following guides are based on the older 7th edition of the MLA Handbook:

The MLA Handbook

8th edition (2016)

The 7th edition (2009)