MLA citations are created using the following template of core elements* (in this order):
Each element is followed by the punctuation as shown in the list above.
Not every element will be relevant to every item being documented.
A single item may have more than one container.
* In addition to the core elements, there are supplemental elements that may also be included in a citation (for more details, see the MLA Handbook, 9th edition, beginning at section 5.105).
MLA is the citation style most commonly used in the Arts and Humanities.
The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook (2016) introduced many changes and a different approach to documenting sources. The newer 9th edition (2021) builds on this approach and provides additional guidance and explanations along with new examples.
The MLA Style Center provides a range of guides and resources, including:
8th edition (2016)