MLA citations are made up of the following core elements* (in this order):
Each element is followed by the punctuation as shown in the list above.
Not every element will be relevant to every item being documented.
A single item may have more than one container.
* In addition to the core elements, there are optional elements that may also be included in a citation (see pages 50-53 of the Handbook).
MLA is the citation style most commonly used in the Arts and Humanities.
The current edition (8th) of the MLA Handbook introduced many changes and a different approach to documenting sources.
Online Guides with Examples:
Print Copies of the MLA Handbook:
MLA Style Center:
The MLA Style Center provides a range of guides and resources, including:
The following guides are based on the older 7th edition of the MLA Handbook:
8th edition (2016)
The 7th edition (2009)