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Tracing the Black Presence: Information

in Nineteenth-Century Westmorland, New Brunswick.


Dr. Jennifer Harris is an Associate Professor at the University of Waterloo. She was previously a professor of English at Mount Allison University, where this research was conducted. Her research interests include late eighteenth and nineteenth-century American literature, African American literature, and print culture. Several of her publications have also looked at figures with ties to both Canada and the United States.


Special thanks to Genie Coates, Elizabeth Cooke-Sumbu, Rhianna Edwards of the Mount Allison University Archives, Jessica Emin, Raylene Fairfax, Brenna Clarke Gray, Susan Hill, Michael Liddell, Andrew Nurse, Al Smith, Daniel Vogel, and the Tantramar Heritage Trust and its members.

Funded by CultureWorks (SSHRC Aid to Small Universities).

Co-sponsored by the Cumberland African Nova Scotian Association.

Migration of the original virtual exhibition to the Mount Allison Libraries & Archives' platform was undertaken by archivist Renée Belliveau in 2021.


Harris, Jennifer. “Black Life in a Nineteenth-Century New Brunswick Town.” Journal of Canadian Studies 46.1 (2012): 138-68.

Harris, Jennifer. “‘Ushered into the Kitchen’: Lalia Halfkenny, Instructor of English and Elocution at a Nineteenth-Century African American Women’s College.” Acadiensis XLI, no. 2 Summer/Autumn 2012: 45-65. Reprinted in Rethinking Canada: The Promise of Women's History. 7th ed. Ed. Lara Campbell, Tamara Myers, and Adele Perry. Oxford University Press, 2016. 183-98. 

Spray, W. A. The Blacks in New Brunswick. Fredericton, NB: Brunswick Press, 1972.

Whitfield, AmaniFrom American slaves to Nova Scotian subjects : the case of the Black refugees, 1813-1840. Prentice Hall, 2005.

Whitfield, Amani. Blacks on the Border: The Black Refugees in British North America, 1815-1860University Press of New England, 2006.

Whitfield, Amani. North to Bondage: Loyalist Slavery in the Maritimes. UBC Press, 2016.

Whitfield, Amani. Black Slavery in the Maritimes: A History in Documents. Broadview Press, 2018.